Creativity is inherent in every creation. However, until explored it is not realized. Even though in one way or the other we use creativity on daily basis, it is not always that we put our minds to it as something that can be explored deeper and developed. with creativity the sense of lack of resources melts away. My greatest strength is in the passion of achieving set targets, a passion that keeps me continually focused on the task, engaging all my time and effort, in and out of the office, until achieved. If I need to research into new areas to get a job done, I do it naturally as part of the delivery process. It is very common to see me punching my laptop keypads while waiting for a bus.
 
Nobody knows what you know until you demonstrate it or impart it. When in 1988, the IEEE team visited KNUST and saw my computerised traffic light work on display for their attention, they said to me, "you are ahead of the people". It has taken me 23 years down the lane to understand what they meant. I discovered the meaning when I was doing research work on Intelligent Traffic Management for Ghana during my Master in ICT studies. For this reason, I am moved to sensitizde our kids and youth early enough to take charge of their talents early enough and develop them.
 
I hold a first degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) (1987) and a Master of Information Communication Technology (MICT) from Aalborg University/Ghana Technology University College (2012).
 
I have travelled across the length and breadth of Ghana to carry out various IT services, including both hardware and software since 1988 when the handful of IT companies were concentrated in Accra. Those were the days that we had to install computers for prospective clients for them to have a feel of it and get interested. My BSc. Degree project was on the Interfacing of the single board computer to a pyranometer for solar energy data acquisition. In this research project I studied the computer architecture, interfacing techniques, and did the design and implementation of the data acquisition system. I program from as low as machine language to high level languages.
 
I have skills in embedded systems. I have a good understanding of programming and computer interface design and microprocessors. I am strong in computer hardware and software and networking; software engineering, application development and programming.
 
I was part of the team that repaired the Kumasi Sports Stadium Scoreboard in about 1988. Thanks to the confidence imposed in me by my lecturer Dr. Francis Omani (Presently at the Maritime Uneversity College) who was the one who introduced computer engineering subject in the Electrical Engineering curriculum of which I was one of the very first beneficiary batch of students. I have a high innate flare for mechanical engineering also.
 
I have done a lot of private study on automobile engineering. Indeed back in school I attempted switching over from Electrical/Electronic Engineering to Mechanical Engineering. My attention to practical knowledge and experimentation found me most of the time in the laboratories of the Electrical/Electronic Engineering together with the Mechanical Engineering workshops while I was in KNUST.
 
This practical zeal has been with me ever since. This background places me now in the field of mechatronics where knowledge of electrical engineering, computer engineering, mechanical engineering and applications development have become inseparable. With this background, I offer support services for computerized automobile ECU diagnostics systems and embedded systems programming. For this purpose, I install and support DataSpecialist III Plus (DSPIII+) device for digital odometers, airbag modules, car radios, car immobilizers. I support the use of Elnec programmer among other such devices.
 
I have ever since 1992 worked on my cars and rendered such service to stranded users when needed. I was, at the time of my graduation from KNUST in 1987, the only student in the Department who had presented and defended two (2) academic projects instead of one (1). Both projects were inspected and received the commendation of the IEEE team that visited the University in 1988. My computerized traffic light product was exhibited at Indutech 1988. This did not see the light of reality because my effort was thwarted in 1989, and I did not have the personal resources to go it alone. Left to me alone, our transportation system should have been automated long ago. I still have that passion. I automate easily as many processes as possible as I see the need for repetition.
 
I am an Adjunct Faculty with the Faculty of Informatics, Ghana Technology University College. I have a very strong desire to impart knowledge and share ideas. I have 25 years experience to offer variedly in ICT:
 
• Self Development in IT by Research – I am very strong in research work.
• Computer installation, repairs, upgrade and maintenance.
• Customer support services – software and hardware
• Networking
• Customer tailored application development
• Accounting systems setup and support
• Onsite IT support services.
• Cyclos Developer.
• Six years in the Linux Severs and PHP/MySQL systems
• MS OFFICE SUITE, JAVA, PASCAL, C++, PHP/MYSQL, VISUAL BASIC, ASSEMBLER, MYOB ACCOUNTS, NETBEANS, ECLIPSE, WAMP, XAMP, J2ME-POLISH, JOOMLA, WORDPRESS, DRUPAL, WINDOWS, LINUX, POSTSCRIPT, PHOTOSHOP, PAGEMAKER, COREL DRAW SUITE, WEB TECHNOLOGIES, MATLAB, ETC. I have the ability of learning and using new systems at an extremely fast pace to deliver excellent products. I am very good in IT application development, developing and porting applications to cross mobile platform. I am capable of working for long hours. I am very meticulous and trustworthy.  

 

 

CASE STUDY

 

THE CAUSES OF CONGESTION ON THE TETTEH QUARSHIE AKO-ADJEI CORRIDOR

AND

ICT SERVICES REQUIRED FOR DECONGESTION

 

Rev. Lambert Ntibrey, Aalborg University MICT Project

 Supervisors: Prof. Knud Erik Skouby (Aalborg University(CMI) , Dr. Robert A.Baffour (GTUC)

2011

 

TMS SERVICE DESIGN

 

The procedure of constructing the System Architecture is: 1) to define the details of User Services, 2) to construct the Logical Architecture, 3) to construct the Physical Architecture, and 4) to prepare Standardization Candidate Areas. (National Police Agency et al)

 

In order to come up with a requisite user bundles and  system logical architecture, the various congestion factors identified in the case study of congestion on the corridor would be translated into a network vision (Henk Taale),   through the following steps.

 

DFINING USER SERVICE

Defining User Services is the defining of the details of User Services to be analyzed for constructing logical architecture. The methodology applied here is that the problems identified in the case study and the ICT services required are translated into a network vision as follows.

 

TRANSLATIG CONGESTION PROBLEMS INTO A NETWORK VISIONS

 

The logical operational relationships are indicated with ‘ßà’ representing bidirectional operation while ‘ß’ and ‘à’ represent uni-directional operations in their respective directions.

 

As a basic rule, all processed data would be archived and managed for access.

The Legislature would be required to pass laws and by-laws to govern the usage of the corridor and charging of fines against clearly defined offences on the corridor. Effort is made to group and sub group the various action points. For example, all processes have a central target of  “Manage Traffic”. “Manage Incident” is a subgroup of  “Manage Traffic”. “Manage Emergency” is a subgroup of “Manage Incidents”. Either the police, Fire Service Authority or the Ambulance Service is alerted to act.

 

The data flows would therefore look as follows.

 

....

Road network effects

 ....

 

Attitudes of drivers

 ......

 

 

 

Stationary vehicle

 

........

.

Attitudes of pedestrians.

 

ICT Service Required for pedestrian attitude monitoring:

 

........

 

 

 

Other road incidents

 

ICT Service Required for other road incidents:

 ........

 

ICT Service Required for commercial activity effect monitoring:

This will require more critical study and dialogue with business owners in the vicinity other than just simply technology. The bus bay within the interchange and the pedestrian crossing there causes congestion and reckless driving.

 

ICT can be used in assisting pedestrian crossing. The involvement of commercial operators in the vicinity would be required as part of an institutional architecture (Henk Taale).

 

USER SERVICE BUNDLES

 

After going through the above congestion problem to network vision translation the directional and bidirectional mapping arrows are replaced with “tabs” (ASCII(9)) in a plain text file. The file is opened as a text file in Microsoft Excel which thus creates separate columns for every tabbed position. All starting group headings, eg. “Manage Traffic”, are aligned in same columns. A PIVOT Table is then generated. The first three columns are numbered with format  ‘column number.column item number” and shown as Table 1. All items in column ‘3’ that have further extentions are placed in another subgroup shown in Table 2. This process continued until every translation reaches its final action point.

 

 

Table 1 High Level User Services

 


 

 

SYSTEM LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE

 

The logical architecture, which aims at explaining the configuration of services, without worrying about how it will get done, takes the form of a series of data flow diagrams (DFDs) (Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.). According to the literature, it seeks to clarify information flow between users and systems and how they would be processed in the systems in order to offer each Specific User Sub-service. Processes systematize the information" anabling the creation of a model of the relationship between the "functions" necessary to offer services and "information" processed in the function by using a common form.(National Police Agency et al)

 

Logical processes are shown as circles, entities as rectangles and data flows as arrows.Figure 1 shows the  DFD for the corridor logical architecture.

 

 The Dutch Architecture is very much represented in this design. The user services have been translated into a network vision. The analysis of the causes of congestion on the corridor and the ICT services required to deal with them has yielded an architecture in which apart from the need for technical infrastructures, organizations such as the Legislature, Accra Metropolitan Authority, Fire Service Authority, Police Service, National Security, Ambulance, road maintenance and construction organizations and communication network service providers would be required to collaborate in various ways to ensure free flow of traffic on the corridor.

The implementation of Information architecture is required to receive needed information and also to disseminate information for traffic Management on the corridor.

 

All data and information would be processed in a Traffic Monitoring Centre for storage, archiving and retrieval. This would feature as an application architecture.

 

Passing of laws and by-laws regarding payment of fines by offending road users would be the prerogative of the Accra Metropolitan Authority and the Legislature.

 

In a default situation in practice, any form of fire incident is required to be relayed to the fire service first. The Ghana Fire Service Authority would be responsible for the organizational framework needed to discharge calls to attend to fire incidents. This may include for example a call to the police or ambulance service. The collaborative extension involved should be the responsibility of the Ghana Fire Service Authority.

 

Following from the paragraph above, all road accidents not involving fire would be directed towards the Police Service for attention. Any further required collaboration such as with the Ambulance service should be the responsibility of the Police accident response mechanism.

 

Offensive attitudes of drivers and pedestrians and all incidents relating to violation of road user regulation that are outlined in the services design would be reported to the Police for redress.

 

Vehicles that have been stationary over a stipulated period of time would be reported to the police. However, vehicles that are identified as having broken down would be reported to the Accra Metropolitan Authority’s existing institutional collaboration for towing vehicles off the road. With a vehicle repair team in place, minor repair works could be carries out in specially created repair bays strategically located in the vicinity. This can also be done in collaboration with Automobile companies and certified mechanic shops.

 

The effects of commercial activities around the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange would require more critical study, dialogue with business owners in the vicinity other than just simply technical infrastructure. The bus bay within the interchange and the pedestrian crossing there causes congestion and reckless driving. ICT can be used in assisting pedestrian crossing. The involvement of commercial operators in the vicinity would be required as part of an institutional architecture

 

The corridor houses many security critical structure. It is also the main route for use by State Protocol and National Security to and from the Airport involving both local and international dignitaries. For this reason, access to State Protocol, National Security, Police, Fire Service Authority and the Embassies along the corridor would be considered in the network access and security design.

 

The receipt of information from the road users and the dissemination of information of information to them culminate ultimately and as a matter of course in traffic control and thus have a relationship with Traffic Control Architecture.

 

The result of this analysis and design establishes a user service scheme similar to that of the US National ITS Architecture (Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.), the Japanese ITS Architecture Development Areas and User Services (Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.) and ISO ITS Architecture Service Domains and Service Groupings.(Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.). The fact that these services are rendered in collaboration with all stakeholders in road use, Management and construction converging seamlessly at the Traffic Management Centre is the main issue of the Dutch Traffic Management Architecture.

 

Information received form road users either via SMS, phone or website does not directly affect technical infrastructure. It, however, affects processing of information(application architecture) and traffic control(traffic control architecture). Institutions such as signal companies who carry out installation and maintenance of traffic signaling devices would be required to interact with the technical infrastructure. They would also be providing and supporting applications which are standard packages of traffic device setup, deployment and maintenance. They would be directly affecting traffic control(traffic control architecture). Road construction and maintenance organizations have effect on the technical infrastructure, in this instance, road network. The Highways Authority, Accra Metropolitan Authority and central government have also got stakes in the technical infrastructure such as road network, communications network installations and regulation. National Security and State Protocol would need to have access to the information and archive records(application architecture), request for route clearance(traffic control architecture). Ghana Fire Service Authority and Ambulance services would also require access.

 

The Traffic Management System Architecture therefore would make use of an application infrastructure which receives information from road users, organizations and the technical infrastructures and processes these to dissemination information to the road users, organizations. It finally fulfils the central task of affecting traffic control through the Traffic control architecture which may comprise dynamic signaling and static signaling, overriding of controls and control by dissemination of relevant information.

 

Hence, all organizations involved in this design would constitute an Institutional Architecture, the road network, signaling equipment and devices, communication network infrastructures, data capture devices and Variable Message Signs will constitute the Architecture of Technical Infrastructure. All arrangements for information inflow and outflow would constitute the Information Architecture. The application architecture would comprise application programs needed and the hardware to go with them, data storage, archiving and retrieval, and access control.


 

 

 

SYSTEM PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE

 

According to National Police Agency et al.,(1999)  a System Physical Architecture is achieved by making  a common combination of  “functions taken out in the Logical Architecture and information processed in the functions among Specific User Sub-services in order to integrate the entire system”(National Police Agency et al). These combinations are distributed in a manner as to create a model of the entire TMS.

 

“Physical models for each Specific User Sub-service” are formed by organizing the information exchanged among the Lowest Level Subsystems and the communications formats, and by arranging the Lowest Level Subsystems within the Highest Level Subsystems. Construction of the “physical models for each Specific User Sub-service” has clarified the structure of the system for realization of the subsystems. (National Police Agency et al).

 

 

STANDARDS

 

These various architectures can be looked at as separate modules which could be implemented singularly or decentralized at various segmentations of the road network, most likely in regional traffic control centers, to link seamlessly to a national traffic management  center. As such, for interoperability, as important as it is, standards would be adhered to various stages of the detail design of the various ‘modules’ in the system architecture. The standardization of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) is a basic standard for all vehicle communications that needs to be implemented in the system architecture.

 

BUSSINESS MODEL

 

Financing: Considering the expected cost/benefit ratio, the government could directly sponsor this project and sustain its running on annual budget.

 

The Ghana Highways Authority and the Accra Metropolitan Authority can take up this project and support it through road user fees. Subscription fees for traffic information can also generate revenue. This can be charged directly to subscriber or through communication network service provided who will collaborate in an organizational structure with the project authorities and remit percentage receipt to special designated short codes to be used for the traffic update.

 

Petroleum levy can also be used a source of revenue.

 

Radio and television stations can subscribe to traffic radio. Since information about traffic is crucial during rush hours, they can cash on this for sponsoring adverts and prime time .

 

 Technically, broadband service providers can be used as the backhaul to provide network connectivity. A high bandwidth will be required for video data.

 

Fiber is available on the corridor. The Cantonments digital exchange is in the vicinity of the corridor. There is fiber to the building to various entities along the corridor. Data and network security will be important to preserve national security and privacy of road users.

 

Organization Model. The government or its agencies such as the Ghana Highways Authority, Accra Metropolitan Authority, National Communications Authority and National Security in collaboration with the broadband service providers and broadcast stations can govern the project.

 

Service Model:

 

Market Model:

The worldwide population of vehicles is expected to be on the increase. According to(Shrikant R. Marathe) …, the world population of vehicles in 2008 was 672million. It is expected to reach 1.1billion in 2013 and 1.5billion in 2018.

 

The vehicle population of Ghana is also on the increase and getting overwhelming.  Hence, the market for providing on road services will be on the increase. Also, the sense of personal security on the road is increasing as well as telematics.

 

Key Elements for Sustainability Mobility are controlling the emission of transport related regulated pollutants, limiting green house gas emissions, improvement of safety, reducing the transport related noise and improvement of traffic flow and reducing congestion. (Shrikant R. Marathe)

 

 

As such the market for road user services I intelligent transport systems will continue to be on the increase and provide the enabling environment for traffic management on our roads and the corridor for that matter.

 

CONCLUSION

“Increasing road safety requires initiatives in road engineering, road safety monitoring, increasing road user education and awareness, behavioral changes and legislations and its enforcement” (Shrikant R. Marathe)

 

Having considered the causes of congestion on the corridor, it has been found that the flouting of road regulations in terms of over speeding and attitudes are paramount problems to congestion on the corridor and that several ICT measures would be required to deal with congestion issues. However, for the present step out of several steps which could be followed in a piecewise manner, focus would be placed on the monitoring of the corridor and displaying relevant information via Variable Message Signs and alerts to appropriate authorities.

 

 

Chapter ….. presents an analysis and design of the network infrastructure. Chapter … takes up the design of the data capture system. It examines various technologies for data capture and designs a data capture system for capturing all data relevant to the effective monitoring of the corridor. Chapter ….is the server design, taking into account issues relating to data processing, storage, archiving and retrieval. Chapter …analyzes the design of an expert system for message display on Variable Message Signs, while chapter …. Implements security consideration for network and data security.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.  LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OF TMS ON THE CORRIDOR

Manage

Traffic

Manage

incident

Manage

vehicle

Manage

Emergency

Manage

Archived

 Data

Achieve

Data

Manage

Maintenance

&

Construction

 

FIRE SERVICE

Manage

Information

VMS

 CCRNVI

Diversion

Pictorial View

SMS, e-mail, phone

 CCRNVI

Diversion

Pictorial View

 

WEBSITE

 CCRNVI

Diversion

Pictorial View

 

Provide

Driver &

Pedestrian

Services

 

 

AMBULACE

Provide

Payment

Services

(Fines)

 

 

 

POLICE

FINANCIAL

INSTITUTIONS

LEGISLATURE

Manage

Archive

User

System

TRAFFIC RADIO

 CCRNVI

Diversion

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

INFORMATION

Manage incident

Manage Emergency

Manage Maintenance

Manage Vehicle

Manage Flouting

Congestion

Pictorial Views

Route Guidance

Speed Limit

Manage Information

APPLICATIONS

Process Data

Manage Archive Users

Archive Data

TRAFFIC MONITORING SYSTEM PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE

TRAFFIC CONTROL

Dynamic Signaling

Manage Archive Users

Archive Data

INSTITUTIONS

Legislature

Charge/Collect Fines

Financial Institution

Road Agencies

Police

State protocol

AMA

Fire Service

National Security

Ambulance

Broadcast Meda

Vehicle Tow Agencies

TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCURE

Field Devices

Network Infrastructure

Figure 2: SYSTEM PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE


 


Figure 1.  LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OF TMS ON THE CORRIDOR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2 Low Level User Services


 

 

Table 3 Low Level User Services (contd)


 

 

 

ANNEX B

 

 

Table 4 Tetteh Quarshie – Ako Adjei Corridor Road Intersections

 

01s

02

03

04

05

06

07

 

 

 


BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Bibliography

Baffuor R. “Managing Traffic Congestion in Accra by overhauling the Signal Timing Procedures.” Available on Internet: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=195642 [Cited 29/12/10 4:45] 21 10 2010.

Boakye, Charles Kwame and Accra Institute for Infrastructure Development. “Road Toll Increases and its Impact on Road Maintenance in Ghana; Available from Internet:http://www.infrastructureghana.org/news_upcomingevents/Road_tolls.html {Cited: 23/01/11 09:06].” Website: http/www.infrastructureghana.org 12 Feb 2010.

Commentator, Anonymous. “Managing Traffic Congestion in Accra - Comment(1).” Peace FM Online; Available o Internet: http://news.peacefmonline.com/features/201010/95565.php?storyid=100&#commentsread [Cited: 23/01/11 09:15] 21 October 2010.

Daily Graphic. “Work Begins on Accra Polo Club-Spintex Road.” Modernghana; Available on Internet: http://www.modernghana.com/news2/273549/2/work-begins-on-accra-polo-club-spintex-road.html; [Cited: 23-01-11 09:35] 29 April 2010.

Dineen, Mark. Real-Time Display of Dublin Traffic. Dublin, 2000.

GDOT. 511ga.org. “Who Operates 511.” Available on internet:http://www.511ga.org/About511/Pages/Who.aspx [Cited 24/12/10 08:47] 2010.

Georgia Navigator. “About Navigator.” Available on Internet: http://www.georgia-navigator.com/about.htm. [Cited 17/12/10 13:26] 2010.

Ghana Business News.com. “Urban Roads to spend GH¢8m on Accra roads.” Ghana Bussniness News; Available on Internet : http://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/01/23/urban-roads-to-spend-gh¢8m-on-accra-roads/ [Cited: 23/01/11 08:56] 23 January 2009.

Ghana Highways Authority. Traffic calming measures . 2010. 18 01 2010 <http://highways.gov.gh/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95&Itemid=11>.

GhanaWeb. “Heavy vehicular traffic in Accra to reduce by December.” GhanaWeb; Available on Internet: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=191006&comment=6098048#com [Cited 23/01/11 09:24] 24 Sept 2010.

Ghanaweb. “Road accidents on the increase nationwide.” Available on Internet: http://ghanaweb.net/GhanaHomePage/education/artikel.php?ID=186228 [Cited 29/12/10 09:57] 16 07 2010.

Google. Google Maps. 2010. 04 02 2010 <http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=5.5735092,-0.19894475&z=13&t=h&hl=en-GB>.

Grant, Samuel K. Congestion at Tetteh Quarshie Interchange Ntibrey Lambert. 26 01 2011.

Gyan-Appenteng, Kwasi. “Spintex Traffic Lights Negate Better Ghana.” Graphic Ghana; Available from Internet: http://graphic.com.gh/features/page.php?news=11121 [Cited 23/01/11 08:25] 9 January 2011.

Henk Taale, Marcel Westerman and Henk Stoelhorst Rijkswaterstaat - AVV Transport Research Centre Dirk van Amelsfort Goudappel Coffeng. REGIONAL AND SUSTAINABLE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS. Rijkswaterstaat - AVV Transport Research Centre. Dirk van Amelsfort, Goudappel Coffeng: Available on Internet, 2008.

Highway Agency. Available o Iternet: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.highways.gov.uk/traffic/24055.aspx [Cited 24/12/10 10:32] 03 03 2010, 24055.aspx: 24055.aspx.

—. “National Traffic Control Center.” Available on Internet: http://www.highways.gov.uk/knowledge/12825.aspx [Cited 17/12/10 19:44] 2010, p. 12825.aspx.

Highways Agency. Available on Internet: Available from Internet: http://www.highways.gov.uk/knowledge/15234.aspx [Cited 17/11/10] 2010,15234.aspx: 15234.aspx.

—. “National Traffic Control Center.” Available from Internet: http://www.highways.gov.uk/knowledge/1298.aspx. [Cited 17/12/10 19:47] 2010, p. 1298.aspx.

—. “Traffic Radio.” Available on Iternet: http://www.highways.gov.uk/traffic/9958.aspx [Cited 24/12/10] 2010, 9958.aspx: 9958.aspx.

Jianhua Shao., University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Chris Greenhalgh. “DC2S: a dynamic car sharing system.” Proceeding LBSN '10 Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop onLocation Based Social Networks. ACM New York, NY, USA ©2010, 2010.

Kerfel, Michael. “Inside the Tokyo Traffic Control Center.” Avail. on Internet: http://www.google.com.gh/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.japantrends.com%2Finside-the-tokyo-traffic-control-center%2F&ei=p1ALTejPCYiahQfEtpyFDA&usg=AFQjCNGsvJPKYVjc6_oAAhagE4IBfgahMQ [Cited 10/12/10 15:00] 31 12 2007.

Modern Ghana. 27 April 2010. 01 Feb 2011 <http://www.modernghana.com/news/273286/1/337-accidents-on-37-military-hosp-tetteh-quarshie-.html>.

National Police Agency et al. “System Architecture for ITS in JAPAN.” 1999.

Ralph Mills-Tettey, FGIA. “ACCRA: THE DYNAMICS OF GROWTH OF A POST-COLONIAL AFRICAN CITY TO A METROPOLIS; Available on Internet: http://www.archibuilt.org/Accra%20-%20The%20Dynamics%20of%20Growth%20from%20a%20Post-Colonial%20African%20Township%20to%20a%20Metropolis%20by%20Mills-Tet.” n.d.

Sakalogues, Ogyakromian. “Yank Them Off, Mr. Joe Gidisu.” http://www.modernghana.com; Available on internet: http://www.modernghana.com/news/262851/1/yank-them-off-mr-joe-gidisu.html [Cited: 23/01/11 19:20] 9 Feb 2010.

Shrikant R. Marathe, DirectorThe Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). “Repositioning in the Automotive World Asia Oceania RegionFor sustainability mobility.” no year.

Tale, Henk., et al. REGIONAL AND SUSTAINABLE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS. Rijkswaterstaat - AVV Transport Research Centre. Dirk van Amelsfort, Goudappel Coffeng: Available on Internet, (no year).

Ting-Wei LIN, Kuo-Liang TING. “A STUDY ON INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE FOR THE.” Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies,. 1 University Rd., Tainan 701, TAIWAN: Available on Internet: http://www.easts.info/on-line/proceedings_05/1557.pdf [Cted 24/12/10 17:43], 2005. p. 1557 - 1571.

Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland. “ITS System Architectures ForDeveloping Countries., Available on Internet: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTROADSHIGHWAYS/Resources/ITSNote5.pdf [Cited: 26/01/11 09:05].” World Bank, 2004.

Zan, Bin, et al. “ROME: Road monitoring and alert system through Geocache; Available from Internet:http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5470722; [Cited 25/01/11 09:13].” IEEE EXPLORE, 2010.

 

 


 

01 Road Network linking the Tetteh Quarshie Sankara Corridor (Google)

 

 

 

Map 02 Tetteh Quarshie- Sankara Corridor with Elevation

 

 

 

 

 


 

RESEARCH DATA

 

VIDEO IMAGES

 

 

 

 

INTERVIEWS

 

Interview MOV_20110117_111738

Lambert: Good morning Sir.

Interviewee: Good morning.

Lambert: Please my name is Lambert Ntibrey. I am a student on project from Aalborg University and Ghana Telecom University, and we are carrying out a project to take a look at the traffic situation o the Tetteh Quarshie to the /Sankara Overpass. We would like to see what is happening and since you appear to be sitting close to the line here, we would like you to tell us your experience.

 

I would be most grateful if you could introduce yourself and then tell us what your experience has been on traffic, probably over the week, the various days, what you experience, the times, as is happening here, whatever you can tell us we would be most grateful, Sir.

 

Interviewee: Ok. Ok. You are welcome. My name is Mike Out. I have been here for the past 5 to 6years. That is very interesting. I have been here for the past 5 to 6 years. Until last year when this traffic light was installed it had been very for people crossing over and the vehicles.

 

In actual fact it’s like most of the drivers, I don’t know, when they are driving and they are heading towards the traffic light, for any good driver to do is for him to be very alert when he is approaching the traffic light. But most of them tend to may be forget whether they are getting to the traffic light and they keep on speeding. All of a sudden when the red light comes on you see them knocking each other here. And it has been a frequent thing for the past years. At least in a day not less than 2, 3 vehicles, you see them colliding just because of the traffic light. And for now, since there is a new traffic light here, fine, it’s been ok. But now, when the light comes on and the people want to cross, it takes less than a minute or exactly a minute, and before you cross even the first one, you cannot even cross unless you are on the run before you can make both ways to the other end. Eheh! So it’s been Ok for now. But one thing is the motor bicycle riders, the motor riders, especially. It’s like they don’t take heed to any traffic regulations especially when there is traffic on. You’ll see them jumping the traffic when there is the red light on, and it’s been happening so often. Sometimes you see them knock people down and all that. So, well, at least comparatively for now, for this year, it’s a bit ok. It’s a bit ok, unlike before. But the only thing is the traffic light, the time, the timing is not sufficient for people to cross. That is the only thing. But for now it’s ok. But if motorist can be advised to just pay heed to the traffic light and be in the look out, because some of them keep on seeding, speeding when getting near the traffic light, they keep on speeding. When the one in from breaks suddenly, then obviously it has to hit the back, and that is what happen here frequently.

 

Yaah! So, I hope the authorities will even take note and do something about it. At least there must be intensive education for the drivers. Some of them are so careless, very very careless. They don’t  even take, I mean recognize other traffic users, especially even the pedestrians. And so if something would be done about it, we here would be very grateful.

 

Lambert: Thank you very much. Now, what times would you say are the peak times from which you have traffic here, even though it may flow, what times do you think that, whether in the days of the various days in the week or even in the day, the morning, the afternoon, the evening, what times have you been experiencing traffic or a lot of cars in the environment?

 

Otoo: Yeah! Actually my day tarts from 5.30am in the morning, and from then on you see that traffic flow, as for the traffic flow it’s very very heavy, always there is traffic here. But at least from 10:00am, 10:30am to 11:am it is a bit down, but from then on till mid day it is always jammed. It is always jammed. Always from morning till evening there is much traffic here. Especially in the evening the other lane, I mean heading towards Tetteh Quarshie, itself becomes very thick. And here, in the mornings too, from here to Accra, is also very thick. In the evenings it’s a bit Ok. In the morning it’s Ok here to Accra, then in the evenings, very difficult. So that is the only problem we have here.

 

Lambert:

Ok. Now, from what you experience, what would you say, from your view, what exactly do you think you would say that is the contributing factor to traffic situation here?

 

Otoo: Ooooh! The traffic situation, it is like fine, more and more people are owning cars these days so you cannot deprive anybody from using the road at particular times. Fine, in certain countries you see that there is regulation that that certain vehicles must move on a particular day and all that. And, over here in our country, fine, I don’t know if that can be done. But, as for the traffic it is there.

 

Lambert: But, do you have policemen coming around here?

 

Otoo: Yes. Once in a while we have the police person standing at the building there directing traffic there and all that and quite recently, so to speak, this Atta police, once in a while you see them there.

 

Lambert: And how effective have they been, when they come around how do see what happens when they are around?

 

Otoo: It is ok. It is ok. But then, some of the drivers, even when there is the  red light on you see them still trying to move! Even with the traffic director trying to instruct, NO! They will just move fast, move and pass away. You see now. So it’s been a problem. It is a problem. But then with them here too it helps. It calms the situation somehow. But especially the motorists, aaah! They are not doing any good at all. They need to be advised seriously. Because, when people are even rushing to cross, it is then that you see them ignoring the red light and passing through. And it becomes a problem between pedestrians and motorists every now and then.

 

Lambert: Thank you very much. Now, assuming that traffic information is being gathered, let’s say on real-time basis, how do you think? Do you think some diversion of traffic, people being told to divert their traffic, I mean their route, do think from the nature of this place, the nature of the road around, the road network around, do you think that telling people that there is traffic over here, let’s say you announce, somebody is coming from Madina, if you announce that there is traffic at Tetteh Quarshie, do you think that will be a way of controlling the situation here? Can they have alternatives when they are told?

 

Otoo: Alternative routes, I doubt. There is no alternative route over here unless of course, if people are going to Accra from Madina, may be the only place they can branch is through Nyaho Clinic and may be join at Kaokudi and then to the Kanda High street. May be they can pass there. But in the morning drivers actually look out for the safest place to pass or where the traffic flows, you see now. But most of them are aware so everywhere is always jamm

 

Lambert: Now we’re, we’re looking at the possibility of using ICT on the road network. We’re thinking of putting some cameras on the road so that we can monitor whatever is happening at the various spots on the roads. And then probably tell people that this is what is happening on the road.

 

If we should go and put cameras to monitor these things, from your point of view how safe will even the cameras be on the road, and secondly how do you think that information can be passed around? There are times you have accidents, there are times somebody’s car is broken down on the road, how do we control these things even if we capture the information?

 

Otoo: Yeah! These cameras, fine, I think it is good in a way. It can actually capture some scenes for the authorities to work on. But talking about installing these things. Fine, they are very very expensive somehow. You can install them. But then even our street lights, how effective are they? Sometimes people go to the extent of destroying them or wanting to steal them. So if, fine, if there can be effective way of installing them such that it can keep off thieves and all that, that will be better.

 

Lambert: Right! Thank you very much. Is there anything more you would like to tell us?

 

Otoo: Well, I think there must be more education. At least the Road Safety Committee or whatever, they must embark on an intensive education for the drivers, especially the motor riders.  If they are able to educate them well, they must stop at the traffic light and allow passengers to cross over and all that that can also go a long way to help the situation over here.

 

Lambert: Alright. So what about if we should put a system here whereby the presence of the pedestrian should be detected and allowed to cross the road, do you think, from the way you see people driving here, do you think that would be effective enough? That is people come, they want to cross, in town we have a push button, you go and push a button, and then it allows you to cross, but we want to see, if people come here, we want to see, then that information is used to stop the cars so that people can go before they cross.  But looking at the nature of driving, now that you’re talking of people crossing red lights, assuming this be implemented, do you think pedestrian would be safe even at that situation?

 

Otoo: Yeah! Pedestrian will be safe with that in a way. But the only thing is that, fine, I mean as for pressing the button to allow the cars to stop, that can also contribute to traffic jam, because when one or two person come and they press the button, it means that traffic has to stop. They cross, then in less than no time another one or two people come, they press, they stop no. fine at the moment, what is in place is ok. People gather around and when it’s time for them to cross, they cross. But then moving from here to the other end, the time allowed is too limited. Sometimes you see mothers, people carrying their babies trying to run across here and trying to cross the next street again. So that is very dangerous, somehow. But if they can allow a little bit of time it will be OK.

 

Lambert: Ok. So we may say that looking at detecting the people, we may say that, or what do you say about looking at it that there should be a system on the road to see that people have come they want to cross the road, and if they are allowed to cross, the system must make sure that the people have actually finished crossing all the lanes before they allow the cars to pass?  What about that?

 

Otoo: Yeah! I think that is also welcome. That is a brilliant idea. It can help.

 

Lambert: Thank you very much. And I am most grateful to you. Just for the records your name once again?

 

Otoo: my name is Mike Out

 

Lambert: Mike Otoo. Thank you very much.




 

Lambert

Travelling from 37 to Tetteh Quarshie on 3/02/11

 

 

 

 


 

ANNEX 01Traffic calming measures by Ghana Highways Authority(Ghana Highways Authority)

 

“The speed of vehicles travelling through populated areas is likely to be one of the most important safety issues on Ghana highways in general and this was also indicated in previously obtained accident data.” One of the main problems is vehicle / pedestrian conflicts. Reducing the speed will therefore give certain safety benefits. (Ghana Highways Authority)

 

In Ghana the drivers do not accept the speed levels, and the police are not capable to enforce the speed levels. To secure low speed it is therefore necessary to use traffic calming devices. This addendum describes the traffic calming devices Ghana Highway Authority uses on their roads, where to use them and how they should be designed. (Ghana Highways Authority)

 

When designing a road that passes through populated areas, many road safety elements have to be considered. It is not “only” installation of traffic calming devices that have to be considered to obtain a certain level of road safety. In general the below mentioned main elements should always be considered and implemented in the design:

Number of intersections should be minimised.

Turning traffic should be separated out from the through traffic at major junctions in larger towns.

Pedestrian and slow-moving vehicles clearly segregated wherever possible.

Implementation of walkways.

Pedestrian crossing point should be separated out from through traffic. This should be done by the use of speed humps and / or raised carriageway with pedestrian crossings.

On-road parking opportunities discouraged.

Access to premises, e.g. provided via local distributor roads.

Necessary parking and stopping must be provided clear of the main carriageway. Stopping places should be identified and safe stopping places established.

Bus-bays to be provided at regular intervals.

New developments set well back from the road.

If possible, street lights could be provided. (Ghana Highways Authority)

 

 

 

3 Interview Of Vendor at Tetteh Quarshie Interchange

 

CASE STUDY

 

THE CAUSES OF CONGESTION ON THE TETTEH QUARSHIE AKO-ADJEI CORRIDOR

AND

ICT SERVICES REQUIRED FOR DECONGESTION

 

Rev. Lambert Ntibrey, Aalborg University MICT Project

 Supervisors: Prof. Knud Erik Skouby (Aalborg University(CMI) , Dr. Robert A.Baffour (GTUC)

2011

 

Hypothesis

There is congestion on the Tetteh Quarshie – Ako-Adjei corridor and ICT is required by way of monitoring, among others, of the corridor to assist in its decongestion.

 

Research Methodology

The methodology used in the case study of congestion on the corridor include literature review of historical efforts on congestion and efforts of the government in decongestion, participatory observation, interviews and video imaging of traffic related issues on the corridor and personal experiences of the author as a driving road user for 20 years and resident in Adenta – Pantang junction beyond the Tetteh Quarshie interchange and commuting the inner city through the corridor.

 

 

DEFINITION

 

Congested operations is defined as

…the entire range of operations which may be experienced when traffic demand approaches or exceeds, or both, the capacity of the signal.(Dineen, 2000)

 

 

HISTORICAL EFFORTS

The Corridor is situated within the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) administrative jurisdiction. According to Ralph Mills-Tettey (no year), employment needs and its resultant urban migration has brought much pressure to bear on Accra and its environs. This results into unbearable problems for the built environments of Accra, where planning is already a problem (Ralph Mills-Tettey, no year; Grant, 2011). Some of these problems include housing, development control, transportation and traffic management.(Ralph Mills-Tettey, no year)

 

The problems have been further worsened by the displacement of inner city residents as a result of converting inner city residential areas into commercial centers. People who cannot get reasonable accommodation tend to resettle away from the inner city. (Ralph Mills-Tettey, no year). This extends to about 10km beyond Tema (Sakalogues, 2010) and thus to about 40km from the Central Business District.

 

There are a growing numbers of people living outside the area of jurisdiction of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA)  and commute to work within this area. They commute from places like Kasoa, North Gbawe, Madina, Adenta, Amasaman, Ashongman, Nsawam and Aburi, Ashiaman, Sakumono, Spintex Road Area and Tema township. (Ralph Mills-Tettey, no year)

 

 

Congestion on the Tetteh Quarshie Ako-Adjei Corridor

 

Attempts to use either of the various available alternate routes from Sakumono to the Central Business District, takes an average of about 2 hours. The result is higher rate of fuel consumption and increased pollution(Sakalogues, 2010).

 

30 minutes was spent on the motorway between Action Chapel and the Toll booth, a distance of less than 2kilometres. A bad situation is exacerbated by many drivers who drive on the shoulders of the roads to avoid a queue (Sakalogues, 2010).

 

The heavy traffic on the Tetteh Quarshie and Motorway sections, disappeared on the removal of the toll booth and resurfaced when the electronic gates were introduced (Sakalogues, 2010).

 

Installation of traffic lights at wrong places and non-attendance to road defects have contributed to congestion on the Spinet road leading to Tetteh Quarshie Interchange.(Gyan-Appenteng, 2011)

 

Ralph Mills-Tettey( no year) found out that the slow and tedious movement of traffic on major roads in Accra at present during the rush hours are due to too many small passenger-capacity private cars, taxis and mini buses (trotros) plying the roads of Accra. No restrictive policy on the growing number of licensed small passenger-capacity taxis and the roads they could use.(Ralph Mills-Tettey, no year)

 

 

Accidents on the corridor

 

According to Airport District Police Commander, Chief Superintendent Anderson Fosu-Ackaah three hundred and thirty seven road accidents involving 502 vehicles were recorded between January and 26 April 2010 on the 37 Military Hospital Airport stretch of the road and on the Motorway. Fifteen lives were lost in these accidents. Even though the introduction of traffic lights have reduced the number of fatal accidents recorded around the Tetteh Quarshie interchange on the Madina-37 stretch, many accidents are still being recorded. Road users, particularly drivers need to be cautious(Modern Ghana, 2010).

 

Over speeding, disregard for road signs and drivers inability to display reflective triangles when their vehicles break down are some of the major factors behind the accidents. Passengers must muster the courage to ask over speeding drivers to slowdown.(Modern Ghana, 2010)

 

 

Decongestion efforts

“In the past few years there have been several road improvement works on major transit routes in the city like the Kanda Highway, from the 37 Military Hospital to Achimota Forest, Independence Avenue to the Airport, redirecting traffic on Kwame Nkrumah Avenue and Kojo Thompson Road in opposite directions.”(Ralph Mills-Tettey, no year)

                                                            

According to the Metro Works Engineer of the Department of Urban Roads, Alhaji Abass Awolu The Department of Urban Roads (DUR) targeted about GH¢8million in 2009 to complete ongoing road projects within the Accra metropolis to make them more motorable and reduce pollution. This scheme included work of traffic lights and efforts to have a central control system(Ghana Business News.com, 2009)

 

According to Ralph Mills-Tettey ( no year), mass transit buses have been introduced. “Ghana cannot for now afford an underground metro transport system that would carry more passengers, reduce commuting times and road traffic”. The resuscitation of a basic inter-city rail transport network is receiving high attention. A trial Nsawam Accra daily rail service is ongoing.  Similar systems running in other part of the city can bring a lot of relief and make commuting less stressful for many workers in the city.(Ralph Mills-Tettey, no year)

 

The Accra Mayor, Alfred Vanderpuje stated that “inner lanes were being designed to try and ease the situation there” (Ghanaweb, 2010). Work is also ongoing on the Spintex Road. This was earnestly being pursued for completion by December 2010 by the Deputy Minister for Roads, Dr. Oakley Quaye Kumah, (GhanaWeb, 2010) thus showing the determination of government to decongest the corridor.

 

According to the Daily Graphic, the ongoing construction works on the Accra Polo Club-Spintex road is aimed at reducing traffic on the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange by diverting traffic from the Central Business District [Ako Adjei Interchange extended] and the Tetteh Quarshie interchange, which is usually high during peak hours, onto the Spintex Road and other linked roads including Madina  (Daily Graphic, 2010).

 

 

Traffic calming measures by Ghana Highways Authority

 

“The speed of vehicles travelling through populated areas is likely to be one of the most important safety issues on Ghana highways in general and this was also indicated in previously obtained accident data.” One of the main problems is vehicle / pedestrian conflicts. Reducing the speed will therefore give certain safety benefits.(Ghana Highways Authority, 2010)

 

In Ghana the drivers do not adhere to speed limits, and the police are not capable of enforcing this. To ensure reduced speed it is therefore necessary to use traffic calming devices. This addendum describes the traffic calming devices Ghana Highway Authority uses on their roads, where to use them and how they should be designed.(Ghana Highways Authority, 2010)

 

ANNEX 0‑1 outlines the measure taken by the Ghana Highways Authority in calming traffic.

 

 

 

Factors contributing to congestion

 

Various factors have been identified as causes of congestion on the corridor deduced from the various modes of the research methodology.

 

  1. Road network effects

Understanding the road network effects requires the appreciation of some aspects of the dynamics of Accra in respect of road users’ strategies in traffic management.

 

The diffusion of traffic on the corridor from the Central Business District uses various routes. The Google Map® of Accra in context is shown in 0‑1

 

A common phenomenon is that road users shy away from one road link at a time supposing that there is traffic on the other. This sometimes results in the dreaded road being free and traffic congesting on the other.

 

All road networks that diffuse traffic from the Central Business District and must interchange at Tetteh Quarshie seek the closest possible entry to the interchange.

 

This has the end effect of:

·         Entry through the back of Gulf House into the interchange results in congestion at the Gulf House junction.

·         at this point, two alternatives are available to traffic in the Madina direction

o   either routing by going onto the Interchange to the right and descending to the left, creating congestion as a result of poor traffic metering under the interchange,

o   or route through the Polo junctions to Polo roundabout and back into the interchange.

 

 

·         The Polo junction situation is further worsened by the re-convergence of the diffused traffic through the HIPIC junction coming from Airport West  and the Achimota – Tetteh Quarshie motorway combining with the inflow from the Aviation House intersection[Table 4,2].

·         The next closest entry is the Association International intersection. The entire environ of the Association International School receives a lot of vehicular activity during the evening rush hours. The final entry point from this School to the intersection gets converted into 3 or 4 lanes, making use of all the shoulders of the road and the frontage of residencies. The effect is the blockage of vehicles coming out of the corridor.

·         The Airport intersection receives much traffic. The entry from the Airport Residential Area direction has a three-lane capacity. Human intervention, either by the police in the form of traffic warden is required sometimes to maintain order at the junction about 50m before the entry to the Airport junction. This further spills over through a link road to Association International School area.

·         The Akuafo intersection and the Ako-Adjei interchange are major commuting link carrying traffic from virtually the entire eastern side of the corridor crossing to the western.  The at the Akuafo intersection is worsened by the activities of the commercial vehicle drivers at the 37 Military Hospital bus bays that are close to the intersection.

·         The re-convergence of diverted traffic at the Flag Staff House intersection, through the Switchback road back into the corridor at the 37 Military Hospital increases the congestion at the 37 Hospital pedestrian crossing light.

 

 

ICT Service required for road network effects management:

The decision of journey route begins from a present location. Lack of traffic information leads to traffic misjudgment by drivers. The consequence on the corridor during the rush hours is congestion at the intersections and road networks in the immediate vicinity of the intersections. Single lane roads closest to these entry points into the corridor get converted temporarily into multiple lanes by impatient drivers. This prevents the smooth movement of traffic exiting from the corridor

 

The intervention of the Police and traffic wardens are employed to deal with such situations.

 

ICT services required are

·         Traffic situation and route guidance via VMS. The VMS should be located such that the message to be displayed will have the most meaningful effect on the corridor.

·         Dynamic signal control of traffic lights.

·         Traffic information on the corridor and the road network in the immediate vicinity of the intersections,

·         Route guidance via SMS, e-mail, telephone  to drivers.

·         Provision of traffic information via telephone service

·         Traffic information via website.

·         Pictorial view of traffic via mobile web service.

 

 

  1. Timing of Traffic lights.

a)    Inadequate timings at traffic intersections create temporal build-up of traffic. Traffic does not clear from intersection for others to have their right of way.

 

b)    Insufficient timing at pedestrians crossing to cross road double lanes get pedestrian caught mid the road. Sometimes the pedestrian volume is more than the capacity of the signal.

 

ICT Service Required for signal timing:

Dynamic traffic signaling with override control from the Traffic Monitoring Centre will be needed for effective signal timing.

 

 

  1. Attitudes of drivers

a)    Jumping of red light: Drivers jumping of red lights by does result in accidents.

 

Motorcycle riders have the habit of disregarding traffic signals as if they are exempted. Pedestrians get knocked down at pedestrian crossings.

 

b)    Use of road shoulders: Road shoulders are used by drivers to avoid traffic.

 

c)    Delays in take off: Either through lack of attention at the wheel or the roadworthiness of the vehicle, sluggish takeoff of vehicles when the lights turn green results in less number of vehicles crossing than the design capacity.

 

d)    Driving in wrong lanes and forbidden turns: Driving in wrong lanes occasionally results in forbidden turns, such as driving in outer lanes on approach to intersections with a final intent of leaving the intersection through a left turn results in the hold up of traffic until such a vehicle manages to leave the scene. This is indirect violation of the provision of safety measure by the Ghana Highways Authority that “Turning traffic should be separated out from the through traffic at major junctions in larger towns”. The police on duty on such occasions compel such drivers to drive straight on instead of turning left.

 

Also the Ghana Highways Authority safety provision that “pedestrian and slow-moving vehicles clearly segregated wherever possible” is violated by slow moving vehicles using the high speed lanes on the corridor. Even though the outer lanes have been designated as bus lanes, buses are seen in inner lanes.

 

e)    Inter driver conversation: Bypassing drivers stop side by side on the road to converse with disregard to other road users.

 

f)     Flouting of road regulation: Non-adherence to road signs, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving with inappropriate driving license, and the usage of defective vehicle and number plates.

 

Wrong parking: The capacities of bus bays along the corridor are not always able to contain the large number of user vehicles. The eagerness commercial drivers for more commercial activity occasionally result in vehicles quickly converging at a bus bay, either as a result of speeding or defiantly waiting in the quest of getting more passengers before leaving the bay. Some vehicles are compelled to park without clearance from the road. Others deliberately refuse to enter the parking bay in order not to be locked-in.

 

g)    Over speeding: Over speeding results in vehicles quickly converging at traffic lights. Impatient drivers resort to careless driving in attempt to get off the queue. The sudden stoppage of vehicles at traffic lights results in vehicles rear-ending in chains.

 

 

 

ICT Service required for driver attitude monitoring:

Avenues must be created for information from the road users and the general public via telephone, e-mails or traffic website.

 

Video imaging must be used to monitor attitudes of drivers on the corridor.

 

Unwarranted stationary vehicles should be monitored over a prescribed period of time and alerts issued to appropriate authorities for intervention.

 

Speed must be monitored. Speed limit and/driving speeds must be displayed on Variable Message Sign.

 

Vehicle identification must be employed to report vehicle/driver incidents. 

 

Lanes must be monitored to ensure effective and proper usage of separated side lanes.

 

Mechanisms must be in place for charging and collection of fines.

 

Monitored data should be stored for present use and archived for future reference.

 

4.    Attitudes of pedestrians.

a)    Pedestrians tend to cross at pedestrian crossing when they do not have the right of way. This results in pedestrians being knocked down by vehicles. It also has the effect of vehicles rear-ending each other as the one in front tends to stop for the pedestrian to pass while the inpatient driver at the rear tries to pull through, focusing attention only on the given right of way without ensuring that road is actually clear.

 

b)    Pedestrians crossing when vehicles are not close in sight sometimes result in misjudgment of the speed of the coming vehicle. This occasionally results in accidents. 

 

ICT Service required for pedestrian attitude monitoring:

Pedestrian presence detection must be used to allow crossing and also to ensure safe pedestrian clearance from the road.

 

Misconducts must be monitored by video and reported to the law enforcement agencies for action.

 

Mechanisms must be in place for charging and collection of fines as may be necessary by legislation.

 

Monitored data should be stored for present use and archived for future reference.

 

5.    Other road incidents

a)    Broken down vehicles. A broken down vehicle  receiving attention on the road or being pushed away from the road  results in temporal congestion.

b)    Vehicle on fire: vehicle on fire causes a temporal congestion until the fire is put out and the vehicle removed.

 

c)    Street hawking makes maneuvering difficult. This is worsening by the use of the street by some companies  as their new product advertisement ground.

 

 d)    Cart pushers  push their carts on the road with impunity and cause temporal traffic hold ups.

 

ICT Service required for driver attitude monitoring:

Broken down vehicles must be reported to the appropriate authorities for removal.

 

Vehicle on fire must be reported to the Fire Service Authority.

 

ICT can be used in granting emergency vehicles quick access.

 

Street hawking and unwarranted cart pushing must be reported to the appropriate authorities for clearance.

 

Mechanisms must be in place for charging and collection of fines as may be necessary by legislation.

 

Monitored data should be stored for present use and archived for future reference.

 

 

  1. Commercial activities around the Tetteh Quarshie interchange

This creates congestion which has extensive spillovers. The allotted parking lots get over flown into the interchange. Apart from the effects from vehicles, the human activities across roads in the interchange contribute to traffic congestion.

 

ICT Service required for commercial activity effect monitoring:

This will require more critical study, dialogue with business owners in the vicinity other than just simply ICT. The bus bay within the interchange  and the pedestrian crossing there causes congestion and reckless driving.

 

ICT can be used in assisting pedestrian crossing. The involvement of commercial operators in the vicinity would be required as part of an institutional architecture

 

 

  1. Education

Some drivers drive to show lack of education in road user/driving regulations. Heavy vehicle drivers behave as if their vehicle size is equivalent to their authority over the road.

 

The ICT service required here would be for continued and intense road-safety campaign and driver and road user education.

 

  1. Migration.

Settlement in locations beyond Tetteh Quarshie Interchange has resulted in interspersed districts now merging extensively into the Akwapim range, on the Tetteh Quarshie Madina stretch of the corridor, and as far as Afienya and beyond on the Tetteh Quarshie – motorway stretch and beyond, and finally the Tetteh Quarshie - Spintex road stretch being no exception and merging seamlessly into the Tema metropolis. The consequence even at this stage where the Madina-Mamfi road construction is not completed is that vehicles speed a lot on the Manfi – Pantang Hospital Junction stretch that is a first class road, the portion that has been completed. This results in a lot of accidents at the Pantang Hospital junction where drivers tend to enter that section with high speed.

 

When the entire road is completed right through Madina to the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange, it is anticipated that settlement will increase in the Akwapim area and vehicles will speed up and congest at traffic lights and finally Tetteh Quarshie interchange to enter the corridor.

 

The situation even in the present uncompleted state makes weekend and Monday trips, from Adenta through Madina to Tetteh Quarshie into the corridor a site of much concern.

 

Conclusion

As long as organizations do not have residential accommodation for their staffs in the vicinity of their work places, the issue of settlement locations will continue to pressurize the corridor as people commute into the inner city.

 

The redesigning of the road networks will help very much. However, that cannot be done in isolation. The volume of traffic would continue to increase. Road users should have a way of knowing what is happening on roads, leading to places of immediate interest, so as to plan their routes before the trip.

 

From this study it can be said that there is congestion on the Tetteh Quarshie – Ako-Adjei corridor. Speed is a big issue in this regarded and of such a concern if even the police cannot contain it. The use of ICT would be required, especially with regard to the use of cameras to monitor the roads. This would help check attitudes on the corridor and to some extent, to assist in its decongestion.

 

The next chapter  analyzes and designs the Traffic Monitoring System Architecture based on the findings of this case study. This system architecture, when employed, will be a piecewise step in the decongestion of the corridor by using ICT.

 

For further study, it is being proposed that the issue of decentralization of the major activities within the Central Business District and the use of ICT in governance be critically examined to further improve on decongestion measures in the city. The expansion of roads is also important here.