Rev. Lambert Ntibrey, Aalborg University MICT Project

 Supervisors: Prof. Knud Erik Skouby (Aalborg University(CMI) , Dr. Robert A.Baffour (GTUC)





The procedure of constructing the System Architecture is: 1) to define the details of User Services, 2) to construct the Logical Architecture, 3) to construct the Physical Architecture, and 4) to prepare Standardization Candidate Areas. (National Police Agency et al)


In order to come up with a requisite user bundles and  system logical architecture, the various congestion factors identified in the case study of congestion on the corridor would be translated into a network vision (Henk Taale),   through the following steps.



Defining User Services is the defining of the details of User Services to be analyzed for constructing logical architecture. The methodology applied here is that the problems identified in the case study and the ICT services required are translated into a network vision as follows.




The logical operational relationships are indicated with ‘ßà’ representing bidirectional operation while ‘ß’ and ‘à’ represent uni-directional operations in their respective directions.


As a basic rule, all processed data would be archived and managed for access.

The Legislature would be required to pass laws and by-laws to govern the usage of the corridor and charging of fines against clearly defined offences on the corridor. Effort is made to group and sub group the various action points. For example, all processes have a central target of  “Manage Traffic”. “Manage Incident” is a subgroup of  “Manage Traffic”. “Manage Emergency” is a subgroup of “Manage Incidents”. Either the police, Fire Service Authority or the Ambulance Service is alerted to act.


The data flows would therefore look as follows.



Road network effects



Attitudes of drivers





Stationary vehicle




Attitudes of pedestrians.


ICT Service Required for pedestrian attitude monitoring:






Other road incidents


ICT Service Required for other road incidents:



ICT Service Required for commercial activity effect monitoring:

This will require more critical study and dialogue with business owners in the vicinity other than just simply technology. The bus bay within the interchange and the pedestrian crossing there causes congestion and reckless driving.


ICT can be used in assisting pedestrian crossing. The involvement of commercial operators in the vicinity would be required as part of an institutional architecture (Henk Taale).




After going through the above congestion problem to network vision translation the directional and bidirectional mapping arrows are replaced with “tabs” (ASCII(9)) in a plain text file. The file is opened as a text file in Microsoft Excel which thus creates separate columns for every tabbed position. All starting group headings, eg. “Manage Traffic”, are aligned in same columns. A PIVOT Table is then generated. The first three columns are numbered with format  ‘column number.column item number” and shown as Table 1. All items in column ‘3’ that have further extentions are placed in another subgroup shown in Table 2. This process continued until every translation reaches its final action point.



Table 1 High Level User Services






The logical architecture, which aims at explaining the configuration of services, without worrying about how it will get done, takes the form of a series of data flow diagrams (DFDs) (Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.). According to the literature, it seeks to clarify information flow between users and systems and how they would be processed in the systems in order to offer each Specific User Sub-service. Processes systematize the information" anabling the creation of a model of the relationship between the "functions" necessary to offer services and "information" processed in the function by using a common form.(National Police Agency et al)


Logical processes are shown as circles, entities as rectangles and data flows as arrows.Figure 1 shows the  DFD for the corridor logical architecture.


 The Dutch Architecture is very much represented in this design. The user services have been translated into a network vision. The analysis of the causes of congestion on the corridor and the ICT services required to deal with them has yielded an architecture in which apart from the need for technical infrastructures, organizations such as the Legislature, Accra Metropolitan Authority, Fire Service Authority, Police Service, National Security, Ambulance, road maintenance and construction organizations and communication network service providers would be required to collaborate in various ways to ensure free flow of traffic on the corridor.

The implementation of Information architecture is required to receive needed information and also to disseminate information for traffic Management on the corridor.


All data and information would be processed in a Traffic Monitoring Centre for storage, archiving and retrieval. This would feature as an application architecture.


Passing of laws and by-laws regarding payment of fines by offending road users would be the prerogative of the Accra Metropolitan Authority and the Legislature.


In a default situation in practice, any form of fire incident is required to be relayed to the fire service first. The Ghana Fire Service Authority would be responsible for the organizational framework needed to discharge calls to attend to fire incidents. This may include for example a call to the police or ambulance service. The collaborative extension involved should be the responsibility of the Ghana Fire Service Authority.


Following from the paragraph above, all road accidents not involving fire would be directed towards the Police Service for attention. Any further required collaboration such as with the Ambulance service should be the responsibility of the Police accident response mechanism.


Offensive attitudes of drivers and pedestrians and all incidents relating to violation of road user regulation that are outlined in the services design would be reported to the Police for redress.


Vehicles that have been stationary over a stipulated period of time would be reported to the police. However, vehicles that are identified as having broken down would be reported to the Accra Metropolitan Authority’s existing institutional collaboration for towing vehicles off the road. With a vehicle repair team in place, minor repair works could be carries out in specially created repair bays strategically located in the vicinity. This can also be done in collaboration with Automobile companies and certified mechanic shops.


The effects of commercial activities around the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange would require more critical study, dialogue with business owners in the vicinity other than just simply technical infrastructure. The bus bay within the interchange and the pedestrian crossing there causes congestion and reckless driving. ICT can be used in assisting pedestrian crossing. The involvement of commercial operators in the vicinity would be required as part of an institutional architecture


The corridor houses many security critical structure. It is also the main route for use by State Protocol and National Security to and from the Airport involving both local and international dignitaries. For this reason, access to State Protocol, National Security, Police, Fire Service Authority and the Embassies along the corridor would be considered in the network access and security design.


The receipt of information from the road users and the dissemination of information of information to them culminate ultimately and as a matter of course in traffic control and thus have a relationship with Traffic Control Architecture.


The result of this analysis and design establishes a user service scheme similar to that of the US National ITS Architecture (Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.), the Japanese ITS Architecture Development Areas and User Services (Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.) and ISO ITS Architecture Service Domains and Service Groupings.(Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland.). The fact that these services are rendered in collaboration with all stakeholders in road use, Management and construction converging seamlessly at the Traffic Management Centre is the main issue of the Dutch Traffic Management Architecture.


Information received form road users either via SMS, phone or website does not directly affect technical infrastructure. It, however, affects processing of information(application architecture) and traffic control(traffic control architecture). Institutions such as signal companies who carry out installation and maintenance of traffic signaling devices would be required to interact with the technical infrastructure. They would also be providing and supporting applications which are standard packages of traffic device setup, deployment and maintenance. They would be directly affecting traffic control(traffic control architecture). Road construction and maintenance organizations have effect on the technical infrastructure, in this instance, road network. The Highways Authority, Accra Metropolitan Authority and central government have also got stakes in the technical infrastructure such as road network, communications network installations and regulation. National Security and State Protocol would need to have access to the information and archive records(application architecture), request for route clearance(traffic control architecture). Ghana Fire Service Authority and Ambulance services would also require access.


The Traffic Management System Architecture therefore would make use of an application infrastructure which receives information from road users, organizations and the technical infrastructures and processes these to dissemination information to the road users, organizations. It finally fulfils the central task of affecting traffic control through the Traffic control architecture which may comprise dynamic signaling and static signaling, overriding of controls and control by dissemination of relevant information.


Hence, all organizations involved in this design would constitute an Institutional Architecture, the road network, signaling equipment and devices, communication network infrastructures, data capture devices and Variable Message Signs will constitute the Architecture of Technical Infrastructure. All arrangements for information inflow and outflow would constitute the Information Architecture. The application architecture would comprise application programs needed and the hardware to go with them, data storage, archiving and retrieval, and access control.






According to National Police Agency et al.,(1999)  a System Physical Architecture is achieved by making  a common combination of  “functions taken out in the Logical Architecture and information processed in the functions among Specific User Sub-services in order to integrate the entire system”(National Police Agency et al). These combinations are distributed in a manner as to create a model of the entire TMS.


“Physical models for each Specific User Sub-service” are formed by organizing the information exchanged among the Lowest Level Subsystems and the communications formats, and by arranging the Lowest Level Subsystems within the Highest Level Subsystems. Construction of the “physical models for each Specific User Sub-service” has clarified the structure of the system for realization of the subsystems. (National Police Agency et al).





These various architectures can be looked at as separate modules which could be implemented singularly or decentralized at various segmentations of the road network, most likely in regional traffic control centers, to link seamlessly to a national traffic management  center. As such, for interoperability, as important as it is, standards would be adhered to various stages of the detail design of the various ‘modules’ in the system architecture. The standardization of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) is a basic standard for all vehicle communications that needs to be implemented in the system architecture.




Financing: Considering the expected cost/benefit ratio, the government could directly sponsor this project and sustain its running on annual budget.


The Ghana Highways Authority and the Accra Metropolitan Authority can take up this project and support it through road user fees. Subscription fees for traffic information can also generate revenue. This can be charged directly to subscriber or through communication network service provided who will collaborate in an organizational structure with the project authorities and remit percentage receipt to special designated short codes to be used for the traffic update.


Petroleum levy can also be used a source of revenue.


Radio and television stations can subscribe to traffic radio. Since information about traffic is crucial during rush hours, they can cash on this for sponsoring adverts and prime time .


 Technically, broadband service providers can be used as the backhaul to provide network connectivity. A high bandwidth will be required for video data.


Fiber is available on the corridor. The Cantonments digital exchange is in the vicinity of the corridor. There is fiber to the building to various entities along the corridor. Data and network security will be important to preserve national security and privacy of road users.


Organization Model. The government or its agencies such as the Ghana Highways Authority, Accra Metropolitan Authority, National Communications Authority and National Security in collaboration with the broadband service providers and broadcast stations can govern the project.


Service Model:


Market Model:

The worldwide population of vehicles is expected to be on the increase. According to(Shrikant R. Marathe) …, the world population of vehicles in 2008 was 672million. It is expected to reach 1.1billion in 2013 and 1.5billion in 2018.


The vehicle population of Ghana is also on the increase and getting overwhelming.  Hence, the market for providing on road services will be on the increase. Also, the sense of personal security on the road is increasing as well as telematics.


Key Elements for Sustainability Mobility are controlling the emission of transport related regulated pollutants, limiting green house gas emissions, improvement of safety, reducing the transport related noise and improvement of traffic flow and reducing congestion. (Shrikant R. Marathe)



As such the market for road user services I intelligent transport systems will continue to be on the increase and provide the enabling environment for traffic management on our roads and the corridor for that matter.



“Increasing road safety requires initiatives in road engineering, road safety monitoring, increasing road user education and awareness, behavioral changes and legislations and its enforcement” (Shrikant R. Marathe)


Having considered the causes of congestion on the corridor, it has been found that the flouting of road regulations in terms of over speeding and attitudes are paramount problems to congestion on the corridor and that several ICT measures would be required to deal with congestion issues. However, for the present step out of several steps which could be followed in a piecewise manner, focus would be placed on the monitoring of the corridor and displaying relevant information via Variable Message Signs and alerts to appropriate authorities.



Chapter ….. presents an analysis and design of the network infrastructure. Chapter … takes up the design of the data capture system. It examines various technologies for data capture and designs a data capture system for capturing all data relevant to the effective monitoring of the corridor. Chapter ….is the server design, taking into account issues relating to data processing, storage, archiving and retrieval. Chapter …analyzes the design of an expert system for message display on Variable Message Signs, while chapter …. Implements security consideration for network and data security.










































Pictorial View

SMS, e-mail, phone



Pictorial View





Pictorial View



Driver &


































Manage incident

Manage Emergency

Manage Maintenance

Manage Vehicle

Manage Flouting


Pictorial Views

Route Guidance

Speed Limit

Manage Information


Process Data

Manage Archive Users

Archive Data



Dynamic Signaling

Manage Archive Users

Archive Data



Charge/Collect Fines

Financial Institution

Road Agencies


State protocol


Fire Service

National Security


Broadcast Meda

Vehicle Tow Agencies


Field Devices

Network Infrastructure











Table 2 Low Level User Services



Table 3 Low Level User Services (contd)







Table 4 Tetteh Quarshie – Ako Adjei Corridor Road Intersections















Baffuor R. “Managing Traffic Congestion in Accra by overhauling the Signal Timing Procedures.” Available on Internet: [Cited 29/12/10 4:45] 21 10 2010.

Boakye, Charles Kwame and Accra Institute for Infrastructure Development. “Road Toll Increases and its Impact on Road Maintenance in Ghana; Available from Internet: {Cited: 23/01/11 09:06].” Website: http/ 12 Feb 2010.

Commentator, Anonymous. “Managing Traffic Congestion in Accra - Comment(1).” Peace FM Online; Available o Internet: [Cited: 23/01/11 09:15] 21 October 2010.

Daily Graphic. “Work Begins on Accra Polo Club-Spintex Road.” Modernghana; Available on Internet:; [Cited: 23-01-11 09:35] 29 April 2010.

Dineen, Mark. Real-Time Display of Dublin Traffic. Dublin, 2000.

GDOT. “Who Operates 511.” Available on internet: [Cited 24/12/10 08:47] 2010.

Georgia Navigator. “About Navigator.” Available on Internet: [Cited 17/12/10 13:26] 2010.

Ghana Business “Urban Roads to spend GH¢8m on Accra roads.” Ghana Bussniness News; Available on Internet :¢8m-on-accra-roads/ [Cited: 23/01/11 08:56] 23 January 2009.

Ghana Highways Authority. Traffic calming measures . 2010. 18 01 2010 <>.

GhanaWeb. “Heavy vehicular traffic in Accra to reduce by December.” GhanaWeb; Available on Internet: [Cited 23/01/11 09:24] 24 Sept 2010.

Ghanaweb. “Road accidents on the increase nationwide.” Available on Internet: [Cited 29/12/10 09:57] 16 07 2010.

Google. Google Maps. 2010. 04 02 2010 <,-0.19894475&z=13&t=h&hl=en-GB>.

Grant, Samuel K. Congestion at Tetteh Quarshie Interchange Ntibrey Lambert. 26 01 2011.

Gyan-Appenteng, Kwasi. “Spintex Traffic Lights Negate Better Ghana.” Graphic Ghana; Available from Internet: [Cited 23/01/11 08:25] 9 January 2011.

Henk Taale, Marcel Westerman and Henk Stoelhorst Rijkswaterstaat - AVV Transport Research Centre Dirk van Amelsfort Goudappel Coffeng. REGIONAL AND SUSTAINABLE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS. Rijkswaterstaat - AVV Transport Research Centre. Dirk van Amelsfort, Goudappel Coffeng: Available on Internet, 2008.

Highway Agency. Available o Iternet: [Cited 24/12/10 10:32] 03 03 2010, 24055.aspx: 24055.aspx.

—. “National Traffic Control Center.” Available on Internet: [Cited 17/12/10 19:44] 2010, p. 12825.aspx.

Highways Agency. Available on Internet: Available from Internet: [Cited 17/11/10] 2010,15234.aspx: 15234.aspx.

—. “National Traffic Control Center.” Available from Internet: [Cited 17/12/10 19:47] 2010, p. 1298.aspx.

—. “Traffic Radio.” Available on Iternet: [Cited 24/12/10] 2010, 9958.aspx: 9958.aspx.

Jianhua Shao., University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Chris Greenhalgh. “DC2S: a dynamic car sharing system.” Proceeding LBSN '10 Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop onLocation Based Social Networks. ACM New York, NY, USA ©2010, 2010.

Kerfel, Michael. “Inside the Tokyo Traffic Control Center.” Avail. on Internet: [Cited 10/12/10 15:00] 31 12 2007.

Modern Ghana. 27 April 2010. 01 Feb 2011 <>.

National Police Agency et al. “System Architecture for ITS in JAPAN.” 1999.


Sakalogues, Ogyakromian. “Yank Them Off, Mr. Joe Gidisu.”; Available on internet: [Cited: 23/01/11 19:20] 9 Feb 2010.

Shrikant R. Marathe, DirectorThe Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). “Repositioning in the Automotive World Asia Oceania RegionFor sustainability mobility.” no year.

Tale, Henk., et al. REGIONAL AND SUSTAINABLE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS. Rijkswaterstaat - AVV Transport Research Centre. Dirk van Amelsfort, Goudappel Coffeng: Available on Internet, (no year).

Ting-Wei LIN, Kuo-Liang TING. “A STUDY ON INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE FOR THE.” Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies,. 1 University Rd., Tainan 701, TAIWAN: Available on Internet: [Cted 24/12/10 17:43], 2005. p. 1557 - 1571.

Toshiyuki Yokota, Richard J. Weiland. “ITS System Architectures ForDeveloping Countries., Available on Internet: [Cited: 26/01/11 09:05].” World Bank, 2004.

Zan, Bin, et al. “ROME: Road monitoring and alert system through Geocache; Available from Internet:; [Cited 25/01/11 09:13].” IEEE EXPLORE, 2010.




01 Road Network linking the Tetteh Quarshie Sankara Corridor (Google)




Map 02 Tetteh Quarshie- Sankara Corridor with Elevation
















Interview MOV_20110117_111738

Lambert: Good morning Sir.

Interviewee: Good morning.

Lambert: Please my name is Lambert Ntibrey. I am a student on project from Aalborg University and Ghana Telecom University, and we are carrying out a project to take a look at the traffic situation o the Tetteh Quarshie to the /Sankara Overpass. We would like to see what is happening and since you appear to be sitting close to the line here, we would like you to tell us your experience.


I would be most grateful if you could introduce yourself and then tell us what your experience has been on traffic, probably over the week, the various days, what you experience, the times, as is happening here, whatever you can tell us we would be most grateful, Sir.


Interviewee: Ok. Ok. You are welcome. My name is Mike Out. I have been here for the past 5 to 6years. That is very interesting. I have been here for the past 5 to 6 years. Until last year when this traffic light was installed it had been very for people crossing over and the vehicles.


In actual fact it’s like most of the drivers, I don’t know, when they are driving and they are heading towards the traffic light, for any good driver to do is for him to be very alert when he is approaching the traffic light. But most of them tend to may be forget whether they are getting to the traffic light and they keep on speeding. All of a sudden when the red light comes on you see them knocking each other here. And it has been a frequent thing for the past years. At least in a day not less than 2, 3 vehicles, you see them colliding just because of the traffic light. And for now, since there is a new traffic light here, fine, it’s been ok. But now, when the light comes on and the people want to cross, it takes less than a minute or exactly a minute, and before you cross even the first one, you cannot even cross unless you are on the run before you can make both ways to the other end. Eheh! So it’s been Ok for now. But one thing is the motor bicycle riders, the motor riders, especially. It’s like they don’t take heed to any traffic regulations especially when there is traffic on. You’ll see them jumping the traffic when there is the red light on, and it’s been happening so often. Sometimes you see them knock people down and all that. So, well, at least comparatively for now, for this year, it’s a bit ok. It’s a bit ok, unlike before. But the only thing is the traffic light, the time, the timing is not sufficient for people to cross. That is the only thing. But for now it’s ok. But if motorist can be advised to just pay heed to the traffic light and be in the look out, because some of them keep on seeding, speeding when getting near the traffic light, they keep on speeding. When the one in from breaks suddenly, then obviously it has to hit the back, and that is what happen here frequently.


Yaah! So, I hope the authorities will even take note and do something about it. At least there must be intensive education for the drivers. Some of them are so careless, very very careless. They don’t  even take, I mean recognize other traffic users, especially even the pedestrians. And so if something would be done about it, we here would be very grateful.


Lambert: Thank you very much. Now, what times would you say are the peak times from which you have traffic here, even though it may flow, what times do you think that, whether in the days of the various days in the week or even in the day, the morning, the afternoon, the evening, what times have you been experiencing traffic or a lot of cars in the environment?


Otoo: Yeah! Actually my day tarts from 5.30am in the morning, and from then on you see that traffic flow, as for the traffic flow it’s very very heavy, always there is traffic here. But at least from 10:00am, 10:30am to 11:am it is a bit down, but from then on till mid day it is always jammed. It is always jammed. Always from morning till evening there is much traffic here. Especially in the evening the other lane, I mean heading towards Tetteh Quarshie, itself becomes very thick. And here, in the mornings too, from here to Accra, is also very thick. In the evenings it’s a bit Ok. In the morning it’s Ok here to Accra, then in the evenings, very difficult. So that is the only problem we have here.



Ok. Now, from what you experience, what would you say, from your view, what exactly do you think you would say that is the contributing factor to traffic situation here?


Otoo: Ooooh! The traffic situation, it is like fine, more and more people are owning cars these days so you cannot deprive anybody from using the road at particular times. Fine, in certain countries you see that there is regulation that that certain vehicles must move on a particular day and all that. And, over here in our country, fine, I don’t know if that can be done. But, as for the traffic it is there.


Lambert: But, do you have policemen coming around here?


Otoo: Yes. Once in a while we have the police person standing at the building there directing traffic there and all that and quite recently, so to speak, this Atta police, once in a while you see them there.


Lambert: And how effective have they been, when they come around how do see what happens when they are around?


Otoo: It is ok. It is ok. But then, some of the drivers, even when there is the  red light on you see them still trying to move! Even with the traffic director trying to instruct, NO! They will just move fast, move and pass away. You see now. So it’s been a problem. It is a problem. But then with them here too it helps. It calms the situation somehow. But especially the motorists, aaah! They are not doing any good at all. They need to be advised seriously. Because, when people are even rushing to cross, it is then that you see them ignoring the red light and passing through. And it becomes a problem between pedestrians and motorists every now and then.


Lambert: Thank you very much. Now, assuming that traffic information is being gathered, let’s say on real-time basis, how do you think? Do you think some diversion of traffic, people being told to divert their traffic, I mean their route, do think from the nature of this place, the nature of the road around, the road network around, do you think that telling people that there is traffic over here, let’s say you announce, somebody is coming from Madina, if you announce that there is traffic at Tetteh Quarshie, do you think that will be a way of controlling the situation here? Can they have alternatives when they are told?


Otoo: Alternative routes, I doubt. There is no alternative route over here unless of course, if people are going to Accra from Madina, may be the only place they can branch is through Nyaho Clinic and may be join at Kaokudi and then to the Kanda High street. May be they can pass there. But in the morning drivers actually look out for the safest place to pass or where the traffic flows, you see now. But most of them are aware so everywhere is always jamm


Lambert: Now we’re, we’re looking at the possibility of using ICT on the road network. We’re thinking of putting some cameras on the road so that we can monitor whatever is happening at the various spots on the roads. And then probably tell people that this is what is happening on the road.


If we should go and put cameras to monitor these things, from your point of view how safe will even the cameras be on the road, and secondly how do you think that information can be passed around? There are times you have accidents, there are times somebody’s car is broken down on the road, how do we control these things even if we capture the information?


Otoo: Yeah! These cameras, fine, I think it is good in a way. It can actually capture some scenes for the authorities to work on. But talking about installing these things. Fine, they are very very expensive somehow. You can install them. But then even our street lights, how effective are they? Sometimes people go to the extent of destroying them or wanting to steal them. So if, fine, if there can be effective way of installing them such that it can keep off thieves and all that, that will be better.


Lambert: Right! Thank you very much. Is there anything more you would like to tell us?


Otoo: Well, I think there must be more education. At least the Road Safety Committee or whatever, they must embark on an intensive education for the drivers, especially the motor riders.  If they are able to educate them well, they must stop at the traffic light and allow passengers to cross over and all that that can also go a long way to help the situation over here.


Lambert: Alright. So what about if we should put a system here whereby the presence of the pedestrian should be detected and allowed to cross the road, do you think, from the way you see people driving here, do you think that would be effective enough? That is people come, they want to cross, in town we have a push button, you go and push a button, and then it allows you to cross, but we want to see, if people come here, we want to see, then that information is used to stop the cars so that people can go before they cross.  But looking at the nature of driving, now that you’re talking of people crossing red lights, assuming this be implemented, do you think pedestrian would be safe even at that situation?


Otoo: Yeah! Pedestrian will be safe with that in a way. But the only thing is that, fine, I mean as for pressing the button to allow the cars to stop, that can also contribute to traffic jam, because when one or two person come and they press the button, it means that traffic has to stop. They cross, then in less than no time another one or two people come, they press, they stop no. fine at the moment, what is in place is ok. People gather around and when it’s time for them to cross, they cross. But then moving from here to the other end, the time allowed is too limited. Sometimes you see mothers, people carrying their babies trying to run across here and trying to cross the next street again. So that is very dangerous, somehow. But if they can allow a little bit of time it will be OK.


Lambert: Ok. So we may say that looking at detecting the people, we may say that, or what do you say about looking at it that there should be a system on the road to see that people have come they want to cross the road, and if they are allowed to cross, the system must make sure that the people have actually finished crossing all the lanes before they allow the cars to pass?  What about that?


Otoo: Yeah! I think that is also welcome. That is a brilliant idea. It can help.


Lambert: Thank you very much. And I am most grateful to you. Just for the records your name once again?


Otoo: my name is Mike Out


Lambert: Mike Otoo. Thank you very much.



Travelling from 37 to Tetteh Quarshie on 3/02/11






ANNEX 01Traffic calming measures by Ghana Highways Authority(Ghana Highways Authority)


“The speed of vehicles travelling through populated areas is likely to be one of the most important safety issues on Ghana highways in general and this was also indicated in previously obtained accident data.” One of the main problems is vehicle / pedestrian conflicts. Reducing the speed will therefore give certain safety benefits. (Ghana Highways Authority)


In Ghana the drivers do not accept the speed levels, and the police are not capable to enforce the speed levels. To secure low speed it is therefore necessary to use traffic calming devices. This addendum describes the traffic calming devices Ghana Highway Authority uses on their roads, where to use them and how they should be designed. (Ghana Highways Authority)


When designing a road that passes through populated areas, many road safety elements have to be considered. It is not “only” installation of traffic calming devices that have to be considered to obtain a certain level of road safety. In general the below mentioned main elements should always be considered and implemented in the design:

Number of intersections should be minimised.

Turning traffic should be separated out from the through traffic at major junctions in larger towns.

Pedestrian and slow-moving vehicles clearly segregated wherever possible.

Implementation of walkways.

Pedestrian crossing point should be separated out from through traffic. This should be done by the use of speed humps and / or raised carriageway with pedestrian crossings.

On-road parking opportunities discouraged.

Access to premises, e.g. provided via local distributor roads.

Necessary parking and stopping must be provided clear of the main carriageway. Stopping places should be identified and safe stopping places established.

Bus-bays to be provided at regular intervals.

New developments set well back from the road.

If possible, street lights could be provided. (Ghana Highways Authority)




3 Interview Of Vendor at Tetteh Quarshie Interchange